To therapeutically differentiate the two types of eating, and to treat eating disorders and obesity-related diseases by reducing hedonic eating
Eating to live
Controls energy balance by increasing the desire to eat following the depletion of energy
Living to eat
Can override homeostatic eating, increasing the desire to eat highly palatable foods during periods of energy abundance
On average, sedentary Americans eat 80% more calories per day than the USDA recommends.
Highly palatable foods are readily available in the US, which is a driver for increasing obesity rates. Reducing caloric intake by as little as 10% could have a meaningful impact on weight loss, and lead to reductions in obesity-related morbidities.
Binge Eating in the US
of adults experience binge eating
of individuals with BED are obese
with disorder receive diagnosis and treatment
Binge eating disorder was added as a diagnosable eating disorder to DSM-5 in 2013
Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent binge eating episodes during which a person feels a loss of control over his or her eating
Obesity in the US
percent of US adults are obese
of US adults are morbidly obese
percent of children in the US are obese
Obesity-related healthcare costs are $190B per year, or nearly 21% of all healthcare spending
Obesity is defined as a Body Mass Index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 and morbid obesity is defined as a Body Mass Index (BMI) >40 kg/m2
A recent Gallup Poll shows that even though more Americans than ever are heavier than 200 pounds (28% today vs 24% ten years ago), fewer are willing to lose weight (54% today vs 58% ten years ago).
Why are 2 out of 3 Americans overweight, obese, or morbidly obese?
Since the early 1960s the average daily caloric intake of Americans has increased by ~500 calories per day
The amount of physical activity during the workday has decreased: in 1960 1 in 2 people had a job that was physically active. Today that number is only 1 in 5
Only 24% of Americans are meeting guidelines for aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity
These factors alone do not explain the increase in obesity in the US, however evidence has emerged that a change in the American diet towards more ultra-processed/highly palatable foods could be a significant driver: foods with high glycemic index and glycemic load may be displacing low-energy nutrient dense unprocessed and minimally processed foods. Ultra-processed foods are also less satiating since human satiety mechanisms are more sensitive to volume than energy content.
Prevalence of Self-Reported Obesity Among U.S. Adults by State and Territory (CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System)